Urinalysis is an informative diagnostic tool for kidney disease. It is used to detect some disorders such as urinary tract infection, kidney disease and diabetes by evaluating a sample of urine. A complete urinalysis consists of three aspects: gross evaluation, dipstick analysis and microscopic analysis.
Through the urine color and appearance, we can determine whether the urine is abnormal preliminarily. If the color of urine becomes red or tea and cola like color, it means there are red blood cells in urine. If urine becomes foamy, it is more likely to indicate there is protein in urine.
Kidneys take part in regulating acid-base balance in the body. Because more endogenous acid is produced, the normal PH level is about 5.0-6.0.
For general population, only small amount of protein is filtered out by glomeruli and then nearly all of them are reabsorbed by renal tubules. Therefore, the amount of protein in urine is less than 2.0g/24h.
The amount of glucose in urine is usually less than 130mg/24h. Excess glucose commonly means diabetes or diabetic nephropathy.
It is another item appearing in the report of urine test, but it isn't as common as the above substances.
Many other tests such as nitrite and leukocyte esterase are listed in urine tests. From the report, doctors can help patients find out corresponding problems.
It is used to detect the amount of red blood cells, white cells, bacteria, etc. These substances can't be found by gross eyes. Therefore, it is an indispensable part of urinalysis.